Fagerstorm Test for Nicotine Dependence

The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is a scale that can be used to assess the level of an individual's dependence on nicotine as indicated by their smoking behavior.

Time to complete

1 minute


Any smoker who wants to quit smoking can take the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence.


Questions for Fagerstorm Test for Nicotine Dependence


How soon after your waking do you smoke your first cigarette? 

The answer should be a single choice:
  1. Within 5 minutes
  2. 5-30 minutes
  3. 31-60 minutes

Do you find it difficult to refrain from smoking in places where it is forbidden? eg. Church, Library, etc. 

The answer should be a single choice:
  1. Yes
  2. No

Which cigarette would you hate to give up?

The answer should be a single choice:
  1. The first in the morning
  2. Any other

How many cigarette a day do you smoke?

The answer should be a single choice:
  1. 10 or less
  2. 11-20
  3. 21-30
  4. 31 or more

Do you smoke frequently in the morning?

The answer should be a single choice:
  1. Yes
  2. No

Do you smoke even if you are sick in bed most of the day?

The answer should be a single choice:
  1. Yes
  2. No

Similar Ideas

  • Cigarette dependence scale
  • Drug Tolerance Questionnaire
  • Tobacco Dependence Scale

Here are some FAQs and additional information
Fagerstorm Test for Nicotine Dependence

What is the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence?

The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is a self-report questionnaire that is used to measure a person's dependence on nicotine. It was developed in the 1970s by Dr. Thomas Fagerstrom, and has been widely used in research studies on tobacco use and dependence.

How are points calculated in FTND?

The FTND consists of six items that ask about a person's smoking habits, such as how many cigarettes they smoke per day, and how soon after waking up they smoke their first cigarette. Each item is scored on a 0-3 scale, with a higher score indicating a greater level of dependence. The total score can range from 0 to 18, with a score of 6 or higher indicating a high level of dependence.

How is the FTND administered?

The FTND can be administered in paper-and-pencil format, or it can be completed online. It takes most people 5-10 minutes to complete.

What are the benefits of using the FTND?

The FTND has a number of benefits. First, it is a widely used and well-validated measure of nicotine dependence. Second, it has good psychometric properties, including high reliability and validity. Third, it is relatively short and easy to administer. Finally, it can be used with both smokers and non-smokers.

What are the drawbacks of using the FTND?

There are a few potential drawbacks to using the FTND. First, it may not be appropriate for all populations. For example, it may not be well-suited for individuals with mental illness or substance abuse disorders. Second, the FTND may not be sensitive to changes in nicotine dependence over time. Finally, some researchers have raised concerns about the potential for gender and cultural bias with the FTND.

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